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Beginner’s Guide to Hi–Fi



Created to hopefully aid anyone venturing into this stressful, beautiful hobby.

I will update this with more information whenever I have time to waste. Anyone is welcome to chime in.




Basic Hi-Fi Chain:



(click to jump to section)


The source component reads the recorded information and translates it into the signal that will be later perceived as sound. Amplification takes that signal and amplifies it (no, really?) in order to make it strong enough to move the drivers of the speaker. A speaker is a collective of drivers that are moved by the signal, producing air pressure in front of them which to us, mortal beings, means hearing sound.


When putting together a hi-fi setup, always keep in mind: The end result will only be as good as the weakest link. Buying an expensive turntable and a good phono preamp is useless if you're using cheap computer speakers. By no means should you decide to just get a shitty turntable then. Instead, think carefully how to ration your budget across all important components.


Jump to setting up & use: SOURCE, AMPLIFICATION, SPEAKERS



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Basic parts of the turntable



This is where the magic happens.

To the naked eye, there are two basic parts of a cartridge: the body and the needle. The needle is the part that reads the groove. It is attached to the body, in which the mechanical vibrations are converted into an electrical signal. When something goes wrong, it is usually the needle that suffered. It breaks easily, and though it is also easily replaced, it costs over 85% of the total cost of the cartridge, so it’s best to be careful.


How to spot a damaged needle?

Well, if you know how it should sound, and it suddenly doesn’t sound like it should, that’s a big tell. It’s not always this easy, though.

Inspect it visually – this is what it should look like: *PIC*

If the needle is broken, it is pretty easy to spot. If the needle is not broken, but the cartridge body is touching the record while playing (and the weight is set up properly), there’s likely no other solution than replacing the needle. If the needle is worn out it also needs replacing,


Damaged body? Unless you stepped… actually, jumped – repeatedly - on it, it’s fine and doesn’t need replacing. I’ve never even heard of damaging the cartridge body, so if you managed to do so, post here and you get an award.


MM vs. MC

I will go into detail about the differences, pros and cons at a later time. For now let's just say that buying an MC cart requires much more care in proper equipment pairing. MC carts are way "pickier" in regards to the phono preamp, and even the inexpensive models such as the Denon DL-103 will perform nowhere near their potential when mounted on an average entry-level tonearm on an average entry level turntable.



It is what holds the cartridge in place, making sure it reads the recording at the right angle and also providing enough mobility and stability. The cartridge needs to move freely, but also track with a constant pressure.



Records sit on top of it. It can be made from different materials, each with its specific characteristics.


Belt (belt drive turntables)

Used simply to provide as much decoupling between the motor and the rest of the turntable as possible, while maintaining an accurate turning speed.



I have no idea what that thing does.



It serves an isolation function, and is what (usually) holds everything in place. Also known as the base. It supports the platter and the tonearm, and depending on the turntable design, the motor as well.


Buying a turntable


First rule: Don’t be cheap.

If you’re just getting into the hobby and would like to experience at least the minimum it has to offer, do yourself a favor and invest enough to get going without the constant presence of a headache. Sure, any supermarket pile of plastic abomination will “technically” do the job (the record will spin and some sound will come out of it), but if you don’t like music enough to want to hear at least a rough approximation of what the artist intended, then why even bother?


Stay away from Crosley

Stay away from Ion

Stay away from Stanton

Stay away from Audio Technica (at least the LP60 model)

Stay away from anything that looks like a Crosley, Ion, Stanton, Numark, AT LP60 or a combination of any of the above. A “USB” in the name is usually also a big giveaway, though Pro-Ject does make such a model, for some reason.


The entry level turntables worth considering are mentioned in this thread, but I’ll repeat them.


Pro-Ject Essential ($300)

Pro-Ject Debut Carbon ($400)

Rega RP1 ($450)

Music Hall MMF-2.2 ($450)

U-Turn Orbit (if it proves to be a worthwhile contender)


Many might not consider them “budget” options, but it is a worthwhile investment even for those that might end up deciding it’s not for them and will abandon the hobby altogether. The resale value is high enough to make these THE cost-efficient choice.


If you really, really cannot afford any of the above, the following aren't the worst choices you can make:


Audio Technica AT LP120 ($200)

Music Hall USB-1 ($250)

Numark TTUSB ($100)


Vintage vs. New


While it’s true that one can get far better sound for far less pennies spent with the right vintage choice, it is an educated man’s market. You might get lucky. The table in question might have been cared for properly, it might be one of those models that can stand the test of time, and the seller might have zero idea what it’s actually worth. A lot of might’s though. If you don’t mind a $20 gamble, by all means, go for it. But to really make the best of such a purchase, the buyer has to posses enough knowledge to determine value, quality and condition of the equipment. It can be fun, it can be tiresome, and it can be rewarding. Not my first suggestion for a newcomer though.


Buying a used newer model can be a two-sided blade as well. The turntable is a “delicate instrument”. If not used properly and with care, a lot of things can go wrong in a short period of time. An in depth conversation with the seller is crucial to determine, or rather, guess the table’s history.


Buying a new table is always the safest bet, but it comes with a heftier price tag.


For buying something under $100 however, at least in my opinion it's better to lose $20 with a vintage table that doesn't work than losing $100 for a cheap new table that, in all honesty, doesn't really work.


Required additional equipment/accessories:


Phono pre-amp

Some tables come with a built in preamp, so this does not apply to them.


The output signal, generated by the cartridge, is much weaker than the analog signal coming out of digital sources. Approximately 400 – 10,000 times weaker, depending on the type of cartridge. This is why an additional stage of amplification is needed in order to integrate the turntable into your Hi-Fi chain. This stage is called a phono preamp. It is a vital part of the setup, and should not be ignored when determining the budget.


When is there no need for a phono preamp?


If there is one built into the turntable.

If your amplifier/receiver has a phono input.


Recommended additional equipment/accessories:


Cleaning supplies

Covered in detail HERE, so no need for me to repeat everything.

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Turntable - Setting up & Use
Part 1 will be for those buying a new table, pretty much set up out of the box.
Part 2 will be setting up from scratch/replacing factory mounted bits and pieces.
You just got your turntable. Congrats! Fortunately, you bought it new, so there will be very little hassle setting it up.
If you read your manual, you already know this. If you didn’t, or did but still aren’t sure what to do, I will not spend time writing about it, but will rather let you see it in action. Moving pictures hell yeah!

The above video is for the Pro-Ject Debut model, but the set up process is pretty universal for all the recommended tables in the previous section.
Make every effort possible to set the table on a sturdy piece of furniture/rack, and minimize any transfer of vibration to the table. NEVER place it on the same shelf with the speakers (what are your speakers even doing on a shelf). Also, do NOT place it on top of any other audio equipment, no matter how cool you might think it looks. There’s always space to be made, and if all else fails, there are wall-mounting possibilities for your table, which is also one of THE best solutions for turntable placement. Of course, it’s not cheap.
After you set it up, you need to connect it to the rest of your hi-fi.
If you use a separate phono preamp:




Connect the RCA cables from the table to the INPUT RCA connectors on your phono preamp. Also attach the grounding wire from your turntable to the GND (might be spelled differently) screw on your phono preamp. Run a pair of RCA to RCA cables from your phono preamp to your amplification (integrated amp/receiver). Connect one side of the cables to OUTPUT on your phono preamp, and the other side to any of the inputs on your integrated amp/receiver. NOTE: Do not connect your phono preamp to a “phono” input (if there is one) on your amplification. Unless you want to know what breaks first, your speakers or your ears.
If your integrated amp/receiver has a “phono” input:




Connect the RCA cable from your turntable to the “phono” RCA connectors on your integrated amp/receiver. Do not forget the grounding wire; connect it to the GND screw. In the unlikely event that your integrated amp/receiver doesn’t have one, you can slightly unscrew any of the screws that hold the chassis (screws that touch the metal parts of the chassis, not the plastic ones) together and attach the grounding wire to it. Don’t forget to tighten, of course.
If you’re using computer speakers:




Connect them to the OUTPUT connectors on your phono preamp.  If you don’t have one, buy one.
If you’re running your table through your computer: Don’t do that, ever. If you don’t know how to hook up your table differently, ask here.
Coming soon-ish. I need to really hate my free time to go into this.




There are many cautionary steps to minimize the possibility of damaging any part of your audio equipment. Here are the basic ones:

-First off, handling the records. I know this sounds really obvious, but I see way too many ebay listings with people ignoring this rule completely, so I have to mention it. NEVER touch the grooves of the record. Always take the record out of the dust sleeve by placing the edge of the record in the palm of your hand, then after sliding it hallway out use how many fingers you have to in order to safely support the record by placing your fingers on the center label. 

- The tonearm should always be resting in the armrest, secured with the safety clip (if possible).

- Always place the record on the platter before turning on the table and always remove the record only after turning the table off (and the platter stops spinning)

-Always use the armlift to lift the tonearm, place it above the part of the record you want to listen to, then use the armlift to lower the tonearm. If you're confident enough you can always do this manually, but shaky hands mean damaged records and broken needles.

-It is advised to always clean the record with a brush before playing.

-If you have pets or clumsy family members, listen to your records with the dust cover lowered.

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Integrated Amplifier

It is a combination of two basic components: a preamp and a power amp, in one box. A preamp has a similar job to the phono preamp, but is not to be considered the same/an alternative. The preamp stage within the integrated amplifier provides the selection between inputs and adds a volume control. It also adds tone controls, equalization and other similar features, depending on the model. The power amp section can be thought of as kind of a signal multiplier. It amplifies the signal, received from the preamp section, by a fixed factor. It is like a big power boost, providing speakers with a suitable level signal.



It is essentially an integrated amplifier with added features. Vintage receivers usually only added an analog tuner to the box. In 70s and early 80s they were the most common choice of hi-fi enthusiasts, which resulted in their reign both in budget segment as well as higher class equipment. Today, many more features are added, from simple stereo receivers with tuners, ipod docks and wireless connectibility to multichannel beasts with more connections than Aristotle Onassis. The quality, especially in the budget segment, suffers.


A general rule of thumb: In the same price range, a modern receiver will sound vastly inferior to a modern integrated amp. Always.


Vintage vs. Modern (and New vs. Used)

It is a similar story as with turntables. Buying vintage can be a no-brainer, IF you know what you’re getting. In 30 years of use, many of the parts can be ruined by improper handling. After 30 years many parts stop working properly simply due to age. There are experts, who open and “refresh” such equipment before selling it, but it also reflects in the price tag. Still, there is no guarantee that a capacitor won’t die twelve days after you bring it home. In this regard, buying new is again the safest bet.


Buying used modern amplification however is a bit less risky than with turntables. While equipment can still be broken by people with no concept of basic rules of using electronics, such faults are much easier to spot and, frankly, much harder to produce. In my opinion, if you need to cut corners to stay under budget, looking for used modern amplification is the place to start.



Pre-amp/Power Amp combo

If you’re looking for one, you probably don’t need my poor attempt at explaining them. Good for you!

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Amplification – Setting up & Use


Setting up your amplification is a much more straightforward process.


Connecting everything


As already described in the turntable set up section, if you're using a phono preamp, just connect the RCA outputs on that preamp to any RCA input connections on your amp/receiver. If you're using an amp/receiver with a phono input, connect the cable running from your turntable to the PHONO input connections on your amp/receiver. Don't forget to connect the grounding wire to the specified binding post as well. This is pretty much it.




-Make sure you always connect everything BEFORE powering on your amp/receiver. A lot of amplifiers and speakers get fried because people aren't following this rule. 

-Always turn the volume all the way down BEFORE powering on your amp/receiver. 

-You should also turn the volume all the way down before selecting different inputs.

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Speakers are what many consider the most important part of the hi-fi chain and the one component the rest of the system is built upon.

Buying the right speakers
Bookshelf vs floorstanding
This depends primarily on your room size, but also on your listening preferences and budget.
For the same price, a smaller speaker will generally perform better than a larger speaker, but won't be able to extend as low or fill a larger room. 
Room sizes: There's no one recipe, because it varies from one model to another. It also depends on how filled your room is, from furniture to stuff hanging on walls. But take it just as a quick guide to know which direction to look in.
Smaller bookshelf speakers: <12 sq. meters / <130 sq. feet
Bigger bookshelf speakers: 10-18 sq. meters / 110-190 sq. feet
Smaller floorstanding speakers: 14-25 sq. meters / 150-270 sq. feet
Bigger floorstanding speakers: >25 sq. meters >270 sq. feet
Then, taking room size into account, you also have to balance between sacrificing low end (smaller speaker of higher quality), sacrificing sound quality (bigger speaker of lower quality), or sacrificing more hard earned cash (bigger speaker of higher quality).
Power handling 
Don't be fooled by the "power handling" rating for the speakers you're looking at. It's either a marketing trick (cheaper speakers) or just a (very lenient) manufacturer's recommendation. It rarely gives any real information and shouldn't be the deciding factor when buying speakers. Generally, it's always better to have more power than not enough, so don't be worried if your amplifier's output power rating is higher than the speaker's rating. As long as you know your limits and know how to properly handle your hifi equipment, a more powerful amplifier will not harm your speakers. An underpowered amp is much more likely to do so, because when it starts running out of juice, the sound gets distorted and this is when you get voice coil movement that can permanently damage your speakers' drivers.
A much more revealing pice of information is  speaker's efficiency or sensitivity rating. This basically tells you how much of the elecrtical energy (amplifier output)  will be converted into acoustic energy (sound). Speakers in general are very inefficient, only about 1-2% of the electrical energy is actually converted to what we perceive as sound, the rest is converted to heat. But there are differences between different speakers, and they greatly affect how powerful an amplifier has to be to achieve the desired sound volume. Sensitivity is expressed in decibels (dB), and the value means how loud the speaker plays with one watt of power, measured one meter from the driver.
Here is a chart showing how much power is needed to achieve a certain level of sound pressure with a range of speaker sensitivity ratings:
Impedance is a measurment of the speaker's resistance and tells you how much of of the current the speakers will draw from your amplifier. A lower impedance rating means that the speaker will draw more current from your amplifier, so you'll get higher sound pressure level, but at the same time the amplifier will be working much harder. As long as the speaker's impedance isn't lower than the minimum your amp can handle, there's no risk of damaging either.
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this will be filling up as I go through most common threads. Also, any relevant question posted in this thread will be included.


Buzzing – it is usually a grounding wire issue. Re-check if it’s properly attached. If it is, and the problem persists, it might be interference from other electronic equipment in the room. Convector heaters, computers, refrigerators, anything can be at fault. Not that you can simply turn them off and never use them again, but it’s worth a shot to at least know what’s causing the problem.

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All tables listed below include a cartridge.



Numark TTUSB ($140 on amazon)

U-Turn Orbit Basic ($179 on U-Turn webstore)

Music Hall USB1 ($244 on amazon, $249 on musicdirect)

Audio-Technica AT-LP120 ($260 on amazon)

A used table from the <$400 category

A vintage thrift store record player (from $10 on), with pros and cons briefly explained here



Pioneer PL-30 ($297 on amazon) - fully automatic, built-in phono preamp

Music Hall MMF-2.2 ($299 on amazon, musicdirect) - used to retail for $450, great value

Pro-Ject Debut III ($299 on amazon, musicdirect) - still available at many places for this price

Pro-Ject Essential ($299 on amazon, musicdirect)

Denon DP300F ($329 on amazon, musicdirect) - fully automatic, includes a built-in phono preamp

Pro-Ject Debut Carbon DC ($399 on amazon, musicdirect)



Rega RP1 ($445 on amazon, musicdirect)

Pro-Ject RPM 1 Carbon ($499 on amazon, musicdirect)

Pro-Ject Debut Carbon DC Esprit ($549 on amazon)

Pro-Ject Debut Carbon DC Esprit SB ($549 on musicdirect) - same as above, but includes a speedbox, so a better value

Pro-Ject Xpression III ($700)



Pro-Ject RPM 5.1 SE ($799 on amazon)

Pro-Ject Xpression Carbon Classic ($799 on amazon)

Rega RP3 ($1095 on musicdirect) - easily the best buy in this category

Music Hall MMF-5.1 ($799 on amazon)

VPI Nomad ($699 on amazon, musicdirect) - built-in phono preamp and headphone amp





Phono preamp:



(Not really recommended, unless you're going for an ultra-budget setup)

Behringer PP400 ($25 on amazon)

Art DJPre II ($49 on amazon)

TCC TC-750LC ($50 on amazon)

Rolls VP29 ($50 on amazon)



Pro-Ject Phono Box MM ($79 on musicdirect, $90 on amazon)

Pro-Ject Phono Box DC ($129 on amazon, $149 on musicdirect)

Cambridge Audio Azur 551P ($139 on amazon, musicdirect)



Parasound Zphono ($199 on amazon)

Cambridge Audio Azur 651P ($225 on amazon, $229 on musicdirect)

Musical Fidelity V90-LPS ($229 on amazon, musicdirect)

Bellari VP130 ($275 on amazon, musicdirect)

Pro-Ject Phono Box DS ($199 on musicdirect, $299 on amazon) - retailed for $350, incredible value at $200 it sells for on musicdirect

Vincent Audio PHO-8 ($300 on amazon)

Edwards Audio MM1 ($270 on audioaffair UK)



Bottlehead Reduction ($369 on their store) - needs assembling

Rega Fono ($395 on amazon, musicdirect) - MM only

Bellari VP530 ($399 on amazon, musicdirect) - built in headphone amplifier and USB output
Graham Slee Gram Amp 2 ($410 on musicdirect)
Pro-Ject Tube Box S ($449 on amazon, musicdirect)
Clearaudio Nano V2 ($450 on amazon, musicdirect)
Graham Slee Gram Amp 3 ($475 on musicdirect) - MC carts only




Phono Cartridge:



Audio-Technica AT95E ($36 on amazon) - great entry level, as a temporary replacement or a backup cart

Grado Black1 Prestige ($75 on needledoctor)

Shure M97XE ($89 on needledoctor, musicdirect)

Ortofon 2M Red ($100 on amazon, musicdirect)

Sumiko Black Pearl ($100 on amazon, musicdirect)

Rega Bias 2 ($165 on amazon, musicdirect)

Grado Red1 ($170 on needledoctor)

Denon DL-103 ($192 on amazon, $229 on musicdirect) - MC!

Audio-Technica AT440MLa ($199 on amazon) - retails for $280, great bang for buck.



Grado Silver1 ($225 on needledoctor)

Ortofon 2M Blue ($236 on amazon, musicdirect)

Clearaudio Concept V2 ($250 on amazon, musicdirect)

Grado Gold1 ($260 on needledoctor)
Goldring G 2200 ($295 on needledoctor)

Rega Elys Mk2 ($295 on amazon, needledoctor)



Grado Reference Platinum V2 ($350 on needledoctor)

Clearaudio Performer v2 ($399 on musicdirect)

Sumiko Blue Point No.2 ($449 on amazon)

Sumiko Blue Point Special Evo III ($549 on amazon, musicdirect) - MC!

Goldring 1012 GX ($550 on needledoctor)

Clearaudio Artist V2 ($595 on amazon)






IEM headphones:

For IEM headphones (in ear monitors, in ear headphones, earbuds), there's really no better resource than THIS thread on Head-Fi. If this guide cannot help you decide, no-one can.


On-Ear & Over-Ear headphones:


Superlux HD 681 ($30)

Superlux HD-668 B ($40) - for the price the sound these deliver is unreal.

Koss PortaPro ($40)



AKG K 240 ($70)

Grado SR60i ($80)

AKG K142HD ($93)

Skullcandy Aviator ($100)

Audio Technica ATH-AD700 ($100)



Fostex T50RP ($108 currently)

Audio-Technica ATH-M50 ($113)

AKG K142HD ($133)

Beyerdynamic DT 770 PRO, 250 ohms ($175)

V-Moda M-80 ($180)

Fischer FA-003 ($196)

Grado SR225i Prestige ($200)

Sennheiser HD25 ($200)



AKG Q 701($245)

Sennheiser HD 598 ($250)

Grado Prestige SR325i ($295)

Beyerdynamic DT880 Premium ($300)





Those marked with * include a built in phono stage.



Your best bet is to buy something used from the next price bracket. Amazon often has insanely good "warehouse deals" for more than 50% off retail. But If you insist on buying new, though not ideal, there are some options:


Nuforce Icon ($180)

Audioengine N22 ($200)

Yamaha A-S300 ($330) *

NuForce Icon-2 ($350)



Nad C-316BEE ($380)

Yamaha A-S500 ($400) *

Marantz PM5004 ($450) *

Jolida JD301BRC ($500)

Onkyo A9050 ($500) *

PS Audio Sprout ($499) Includes a phono stage and a DAC. Great value.

Nad C-316BEE ($550)

Cambridge Audio 351A ($550)

Music Hall A15.3 ($550) *

Teac AH01 ($550)



Marantz PM6004 ($600) * currently only $450 on Amazon and Music Direct

Cambridge Audio 351A ($800)

Nad C-356BEE ($800)

Rega Brio-R ($895)

Marantz PM8004 ($900) *

Firestone Rubby ($900)




This is probably the category with the widest selection available in any budget, so the speakers listed here are in no way the only viable options. Take it more as a selection of what I either have experience with and can strongly recommend or I have heard/read a lot of positive comments about from sources I've come to trust over the years.


Also since I found some of these heavily discounted the price might not be the same in every store or might not even last for long, so I put the MSRP up as well.


Bookshelf speakers:


Dayton Audio B652 ($40)
Pioneer SP-BS22-LR ($130)
NHT SuperZero 2.1 ($200)
Kef C3 ($200)
Audioengine P4 ($249)
Definitive Technology StudioMonitor 350 ($250)
Arx A1b ($300)
Wharfedale Diamond 10.1 ($349)
Definitive Technology StudioMonitor 450 ($350)
Kef Q100 ($400)
Monitor Audio BX-2 ($450)
Dali Zensor 1 ($500)
Kef Q300 ($500)
Epos Epic 1 ($500)
Klipsch Reference RB-61 II ($550)
Rega RS 1 ($800)
Klipsch Reference RB-81 II ($850)
Floorstanding speakers:
Polk Audio Monitor 65T ($370) retail is $700
Polk Audio Monitor 75T ($450) retail is $1000
Wharfedale Diamond 10.3 ($520)
Magnepan MMG ($600)
Focal Chorus 714V ($720)
Klipsch RF-52 II ($750)
Boston Acoustics M250 ($750)
Wharfedale Diamond 10.5 ($760)
Klipsch RF-62 II ($800)
Kef Q500 ($800)
Focal 716V ($900) retail $1500
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This is one of the reasons I love this forum. People wanting to help out and better others on the board. We all may argue about which TT sounds best, or why we don't like (insert speaker brand here), but giving n00bs a place to read what the "standards" of a good, entry-level system looks like is great. 


I commend you for taking time out of your day to help others. 

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Haha, I know. The last post in the "Best place to buy Pro-Ject Carbon" thread tipped me over the edge, so I sat down and started writing. I couldn't take it anymore! :D


Heh, sorry about that  :P .


Thanks for the thread though. This really helps out with me/others who don't know a lot about hi-fi setups!

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So good, this will put an end to so many beginner's threads. 


Let's be honest, NOTHING will put an end to beginner's threads. However, whenever one does pop up, we'll be able to direct them here. 


I wish we could make this be the Vinyl Collective Terms of Service. In order to post, you have to read through this thread and take a quiz. Not really. But kind of really.  :)

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Let's be honest, NOTHING will put an end to beginner's threads. However, whenever one does pop up, we'll be able to direct them here. 


I wish we could make this be the Vinyl Collective Terms of Service. In order to post, you have to read through this thread and take a quiz. Not really. But kind of really.  :)

A man can dream. 

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This is a side of record collecting etc. that I FUCKING HATE for the most part, but the explanations here are FUCKING EXCELLENT and make me hate it just a little bit less. Thanks for clarifying so much for a dum-dum such as myself!

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This is a side of record collecting etc. that I FUCKING HATE for the most part, but the explanations here are FUCKING EXCELLENT and make me hate it just a little bit less. Thanks for clarifying so much for a dum-dum such as myself!


I don't get it. You mean the part where you actually listen to / enjoy your records?


It's definitely daunting at first, but once you familiarize yourself with some of the basics, it starts to get a lot more fun and interesting.  The worse part about this side of the hobby is undoubtedly the financial side, and the more you get into it, the more you want to spend.  And then once you have a setup that sounds pretty good, it just makes you want to buy and listen to more records. And then you start thinking that those records you just bought could sound even better with a nicer moving coil cartridge and preamp.  And then you realize that half your gear is way above the level of the other half of your gear and you're compelled to upgrade again.  And then your shit sounds so tight that you realize that your DIY cleaning method isn't cutting it and you have to fork out a few hundred on a RCM.  And then you just fucking love records so much that you need to listen to them in every single room in your house, which means buying way more equipment than any normal person should have.  And then you realize that you've got 19,000 posts on Audiokarma. And then you start to get bored with vinyl and you concentrate on digital audio, which opens up an entirely new can of worms.


And then your family leaves you and you die.

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